1. Since crime rates in Canada are falling, is violence against women still a serious problem?
2. Isn't there less domestic violence now than in the past?
3. What is violence against women?
4. What causes violence against women?
5. Aren't men just as likely to be victims as women?
6. If a woman is being abused, why doesn't she just leave the relationship?
7. Who is most at risk of violence against women?
8. What effect does domestic violence have on children?
9. What should I do if I think someone is being abused?
10. Can violence against women ever be stopped?
But switching to a fully adjusted model of the gender wage gap actually can radically understate the effect of gender discrimination on women’s earnings. This is because gender discrimination doesn’t happen only in the pay-setting practices of employers making wage offers to nearly identical workers of different genders. Instead, it can potentially happen at every stage of a woman’s life, from girlhood to moving through the labor market. By the time she completes her education and embarks on her career, a woman’s occupational choice is the culmination of years of education, guidance by mentors, expectations of parents and other influential adults, hiring practices of firms, and widespread norms and expectations about work/family balance held by employers, co-workers, and society (Gould and Schieder 2016). So it would not be accurate to assume that discrimination explains only the gender wage gap that remains after adjusting for education, occupational choice, and all these other factors. Put another way, we cannot look at our adjusted model and say that discrimination explains at most percent of the gender wage gap. Why? Because, for example, by controlling for occupation, this adjusted wage gap no longer includes the discrimination that can influence a woman’s occupational choice.
Alkaline phosphatase is another liver enzyme that is frequently measured. This enzyme is usually found in the walls of the bile ducts (tube-like structures within the liver that connect liver cells together). Elevation of alkaline phosphatase may indicate an injury to the biliary cells. Common causes of biliary injury or biliary obstruction (cholestasis) are gallstones and certain medications, although, some of the conditions listed previously can also raise the levels of this enzyme. Alkaline phosphate is also found in the bone and can be elevated in bone diseases. GGT and 5' nucleotidase levels can be elevated in biliary conditions (disease of the gallbladder and bile ducts) along with alkaline phosphatase.